your web directory

OSS, Linux, BSD, Virtualization, other OSes🐧

for Windows and MacOS see at the respective headings:



generic package search

  1., including find/search for i586, i686 packages (IA32)
  2. direct: fedora buildsystem, opensuse package search (including IA32 & the build systems)
  3. many package formats including .rpm and .deb
  4. more packages but just for rpm
  5. python: pypi, perl: cpan, nodejs: npmjs, Cocoapods (via Ruby)
  6. FlatHub, AppImages, (packages for snap), find docker containers // container-docs💻
  7. F-Droid, UptoDown, AppImageHub, UD: freely download Android, MacOS, Windows packages, no registration required

distributions, distribution specific offers & package search, downloading

  1. Debian (community distro, i.e. free & open): package search, releases, download: stable (https), testing (https), firmware (https), Atterer´s download tool (+src/win+https),
  2. Mageia (community distro), package search
  3. openSUSE (sponsored by Novell): package search, oS Build Service
  4. more distros: Fedora (sponsored by RedHat), Linux Mint (community), (non-community, no release media)
  5. Ubuntu (from Canonical), Launchpad
  6. You want to self-compile your own distro: Gentoo (community), Linux From Scratch
  7. Slackware (non community) also suitable for very old PCs: Slackware 9 runs on i386, Slackware 11 on i486
  8. immutable Linux: Fedora Silverblue, Debian Endless OS, openSUSE MicroOS
  9. embedded devices, routers: OpenWrt ~ at Debienna, legacy NSLU: Wiki, repo:, Unslung Firmware, WayBack: (no binary download), /dev/#hw
  10. System Rescue CD, Tom´s root boot: floppy that also boots on an i386 computer
  11. Security Distros🗝, not Linux, not OSS: Ultimate Boot CD

raw software search, git hoster

  1. LinuxLinks, Links2Linux
  4. /explore:,

popular Open Source Software (with Windows & MacOS availability)🖫 ← click it!


Linux forums & chat

  1.,,, StackXchg forums
  2. German forums:,,
  3. Mailing Lists: Debian mailing lists, program specific mailing lists: search yourself
  4. IRC: channel search, (OSS & Linux), (#qemu etc., #debian), IRC-howto; libera/list
  5. pasting code: privatebin, dpaste, curl-cmd, for nc & command line

Linux articles, resources & blogs, FSFE

  1. LinuxOpSys: first steps, Linux Basics, Linux for Beginners (DigitalOcean), Linux intro & more
  2. tech info: LinuxGuruz, CentOS HowTos, ArchWiki: contents/search, Mageia, openSUSE, Debian Wiki+HwTs; de: Referenz/Handbuch, Ubuntu: manual; de: users, many: Linuxize, LinuxHandbook,
  3. news: DebugPointNews, TecMint, UbuntuPit, LinuxAndUbuntu, TecAdmin, de: LinuxUndIch
  4. articles: Linux magazine, LM in German,, FS-magazine
  5. fr: Lea-Linux, linuxfr, TheGeekDiary (SELinux, Apparmore, iptables)
  6. howtos: OSTechnix, LinuxTechi, HowToForge, 2DayGeek, XModulo
  7. blog: LinuxUprising, LinuxConfig, NixCraft/CyberCity, TheGeekStuff
  8. books:, news about the Linux Kernel: LWN
  9. The Linux Documentation Project: TLDP/quick link: HowTos (may not be the newest)
  10. howto: compile the Linux kernel - Hunt for 4K (de) + UHD graphics
  11. Free Software Foundation Europe

Virtualization (Linux, Win, MacOS, BSD)

  1. Qemu: Virtualization, multiple OS, in Linux kernel; i.e. most easy to use for Linux (download)
  2. VirtualBox: GUI-Virtualization, multiple OS (download)
  3. VMware Workstation Player: restricted, you can not create own images (download)
  4. Microsoft Windows, Oracle Solaris: development environments for VirtualBox and more formats
  5. free VirtualBox Images: get an image without the need to install from scratch
  6. converting image files - quick guide
  7. drvtools (Linux) - boot a dual boot OS from same hard disk with Qemu (limits other parts to read only), burn sparse raw images on blue ray
  8. systemd-container (Linux)
  9. Xen Beginner´s Guide (wiki) (Linux)
  10. xchroot (Linux) - how to create a chroot environment, GUI programs incl. dekstop link out of chroot, GUI sessions out of chroot & more


  1. DNS (/etc/resolv.conf): lifewire list, opennic, opendns,, uncensoreddns (test a few times: dig @ | grep "Query time")
  2. dns[sec]/bind9 configuration: IANA Root Files (dnssec: put ". 86400 IN DNSKEY 257 3 8 AwEAAaz…" into /usr/share/dns/root.key, from Root Zone File)
  3. NTP (network time protocol): intro & config, pool.ntp, (/etc/ntp.conf, systemctl status ntpd)
  4. linode: Firewalls, SELinux & more, netfilter howtos + FAQ: fitlering & NAT # linuxguruz networking
  5. e-mail: mutt, NeoMutt: guide/man, mailx (s-nail) # ssh: gpg-key for ssh
  6. printer: cups/localhost, drivers, cups-onlineDocs, Ghostscript-docs

more Operating Systems

BSD Unix-variants (all open source like Linux!)

  1. FreeBSD (most widespread)
  2. OpenBSD: on reddit, (they contend for secure networking, authors of openssh)
  3. DragonFly BSD (you may try this for old seldom hardware, features like virtual kernels)
  4. NetBSD
BSD systems have a license that does not exclude commercial use: MacOS is built on top of BSD; BSDs also have chroot-jails, chroot as a security feature

Windows, MacOS, DOS & OS/2

  1. win→tux: Cygwin: Linux environment for Windows, CoLinux Linux under Windows, install WSL (Windows System on Linux),
  2. tux→win: Wine, WineTricks, PlayOnLinux: Windows on Linux (Debian: contrib)
  3. MacOS: Homebrew, MacPorts, Fink, needs gcc for OSX/MacOS, otherwise you need the proprietary Xcode (or: newest) monstrosity
    Mac-add-dev: RubyGems +other MacDevSetup, Cocoapods
  4. de: Einführung in Windows & HTML: EDV-Lehrgang
  5. Ecomstation, Arca Noae: OS/2 for i586 (OS/2 also has a good DOS-Emulation)
  6. IBM OS/2: OS/2 Warp installation and update manual, works on i486, i386 and i286 computers, protected mode (80286 is 16bit protected mode)
  7. DOSBox-X: cross-platform DOS emulation, Win 3.x and Win 9x supported; more and better features compared to DOSBox.
  8. FreeDOS real mode, can address no more than 1MB RAM, still used for BIOS updates and legacy sw; you may try DOSBox-X instead of Qemu or VirtualBox-ing FreeDOS
  9. Δsoft GEM: ancient IDE upon DOS, dominant before Windows 3 on 8086 computers
Windows 3.1 was originally booted on top of DOS. Windows 95 & 98 are own OSes, running a DOS extender on real mode, Windows NT and XP the first protected mode 32bit OSes

alternative OSes

  1. Haiku OS, Qubes OS, GNU Hurd, MenuetOS

Linux-Hardware 🛒

go to programming💻, go to creativity🖌, go to sci🧪

go to main index

An URL frequently used by you is missing? Write us: